Windows Server Troubleshooting - Commands

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This section describes commands that are useful in network troubleshooting. Probably the most common is the PING command which sends an echo test message to another machine. If we get an echo we know that everything from the Network layer down is OK.

 Network layer and down are OK   Network layer and down are not OK
Echo request
Echo reply
  Echo request
Echo request
Echo request

Use PING [computerName] to do a normal echo test. Use PING -a [IPaddress] to determine a computer's name or DNS name.

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS]
[-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]]
[-w timeout] target_name

Options:
-t Ping the specified host until stopped.
To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break;
To stop - type Control-C.
-a Resolve addresses to hostnames.
-n count Number of echo requests to send.
-l size Send buffer size.
-f Set Don't Fragment flag in packet.
-i TTL Time To Live.
-v TOS Type Of Service.
-r count Record route for count hops.
-s count Timestamp for count hops.
-j host-list Loose source route along host-list.
-k host-list Strict source route along host-list.
-w timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

 The following error messages are commonly returned by Ping during troubleshooting:

Error Description
TTL Expired in Transit The number of required hops exceeds the TTL Time to Live. Increase TTL by using the ping-i parameter. Use the tracert command to see whether misconfigured routers have caused a routing loop.
Destination Host Unreachable No local or remote route does exists for a destination host, either at the sending host or at a router. Troubleshoot the local host or the router's routing table.
Request Timed Out The Echo Reply messages were not received within the designated timeout period. Use the ping -w command to increase the timeout from the default four seconds.
Ping request could not find host The destination host name cannot be resolved. Verify the name and the availability of DNS or WINS servers.