Windows Server Troubleshooting - Maintenance

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To repair common file system errors, run CHKDSK or use the check disk tool available in Explorer's disk properties.

FSUTIL

Use the FSUTIL command to get information on NTFS volumes.

Command Description
fsutil fsinfo drives Lists the drive letters for all volumes on the computer.
fsutil fsinfo drivetype Displays the drive type for the specified drive. For example, this command can return Fixed Drive, CD-ROM Drive, and Removable Drive.
fsutil fsinfo volumeinfo For a specified NTFS volume, displays information about the file system, such as volume name, serial number, and whether the volume supports NTFS-related features, such as disk quotas, encryption, and compression.
fsutil fsinfo statistics Displays statistics about the specified NTFS volume.
fsutil fsinfo ntfsinfo Displays information about the specified NTFS volume, such as the total clusters, free clusters, bytes per sector, bytes per cluster, and information about the master file table (MFT).
fsutil volume dismount Dismounts the specified volume.
fsutil volume diskfree Displays the total number of bytes in the volume, the number of free bytes, and the number of bytes available for data storage.

FSUTIL /BEHAVIOUR can change Registry settings that can affect performance as shown in the following table.

Option Description
disable8dot3 Eliminates the overhead of the legacy 8.3 filename creation
disablelastaccess Eliminated the overhead of maintaining the last access time attribute
quotanotify Set the interval between quota-related events in the system log
mftzone Change the size of the MFT zone for newly created volumes

CHKNTFS

The volume dirty-bit is used to flag the volume for an AUTOCHK at the next boot. CHKNTFS reports on the status of the dirty-bit. The help information for CHKNTFS follows.

Displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.

CHKNTFS volume [...]
CHKNTFS /D
CHKNTFS /T[:time]
CHKNTFS /X volume [...]
CHKNTFS /C volume [...]

volume Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
mount point, or volume name.
/D Restores the machine to the default behavior; all drives are
checked at boot time and chkdsk is run on those that are
dirty.
/T:time Changes the AUTOCHK initiation count down time to the
specified amount of time in seconds. If time is not
specified, displays the current setting.
/X Excludes a drive from the default boot-time check. Excluded
drives are not accumulated between command invocations.
/C Schedules a drive to be checked at boot time; chkdsk will run
if the drive is dirty.

If no switches are specified, CHKNTFS will display if the specified drive is
dirty or scheduled to be checked on next reboot.

Keyboard Exercise

From a local disk properties dialog, select the Tools tab and press the Check Now button to launch CHKDSK.